Prime Minister’s Commons statement on triggering Article 50
From Washington, this is VOA news. I’m Jee Abbey Lee reporting.
The Syrian government and Russian warplanes carried out a toxic gas
attack in northern Syria, monitors and civil defense workers alleged
The attack killed at least 65 people and injured more than 350 others.
Thank you Mr Speaker.
Syrian opposition activists described the attack as among the worst in
the country’s brutal six years civil war and the main political
opposition group, the Syrian National Coalition, dabbed it a “horrifying
Today the government acts onthe democratic will[民主意愿]of the
British people. And it acts, too, on the clear and convincing position
of this House.
Russia has “categorically denied” any role in the attack.
Canaan was the name of a large and
A few minutes ago inBrussels[芝加哥],the United Kingdom’s
Permanent Representative to the EU[英常驻欧盟表示]handed a letter
tothe President of the European Council[欧盟总管会召集人]on my behalf,
confirming the government’s decision to invokeArticle 50 of the Treaty
on European Union[《圣菲波哥大条约》第60条].
Speaking from a conference on Syria in Brussels, U.N. special envoy
Staffan de Mistura condemned the attack.
prosperous country (at times independent, at others a tributary to
The Article 50 process is now underway. Andin accordance withthe
wishes of the British people, the United Kingdom is leaving the European
“Every time we have a moment in which international community is capable
of being together, 70 countries tomorrow, there is someone, somehow that
tries to undermine that feeling of hope by producing a feeling of horror
and outrage. But we are not going to give up. And on the contrary, we
make use of every of this horror moments in order to show the
determination that they cannot prevail.”
corresponds roughly to present-day Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Israel and
This is an historic moment from whichthere can be no turning
back.Britain is leaving the European Union. We are going to make our
own decisions and our own laws. We are going to take control of the
things that matter most to us. And we are going to take this opportunity
to build a stronger, fairer Britain – a country that our children and
grandchildren are proud to call home. That is our ambition and our
opportunity. That is what this government is determined to do.
U.S. President Donald Trump is suggesting that Susan Rice, the national
security adviser for his predecessor, former President Barack Obama,
spied on conversations Trump aides had with foreign nationals last year
and sought to unmask their identities for political gain.
also known as Phoenicia. The origin of the name `Canaan’ for the land
Mr Speaker, at moments like these –great turning pointsin our national
story – the choices we make define the character of our nation. We can
choose to say the task ahead is too great. We can choose to turn our
face to the past and believe it can’t be done. Or we can look forward
with optimism and hope – and to believe inthe enduring
power[从始至终力量]of the British spirit.
Rice said Tuesday that accusation was “absolutely false.”
from various ancient texts (among them the Hebrew Bible) and there is no
Qianlong’s Letter to George III, 1793
I choose to believe in Britain and that our best dayslie ahead. And I
do so because I am confident that we have the vision and the plan to use
this moment to build a better Britain. For leaving the European Union
presents us with a unique opportunity. It is this generation’s chance
toshape a brighter futurefor our country. A chance to step back and
ask ourselves what kind of country we want to be.
Rice told MSNBC there is no truth to Trump’s claim a month ago that
Obama wiretapped him. The allegation also widely debunked by U.S.
lawmakers and intelligence officials.
scholarly consensus on precisely where the name originated nor what it
My answer is clear. I want the United Kingdom to emerge from this period
of changestronger,fairer, more united and more outward-lookingthan
ever before. I want us to be asecure, prosperous, tolerantcountry –
amagnet[磁铁;吸铁石]for international talent and a home to the
pioneers and innovators who will shape the world ahead.
This is VOA news.
intended to convey about the land. According to the Bible the land was
You, O King, live beyond the confines of
many seas. Nevertheless, impelled by your humble desire to partake of
the benefits of our civilisation, you have dispatched a mission
respectfully bearing your memorial. Your Envoy has crossed the seas and
paid his respects at my Court on the anniversary of my birthday. To show
your devotion, you have also sent offerings of your country’s
I want us to be a trulyGlobal Britain– the best friend and neighbour
to our European partners, but a country that reaches beyond the borders
of Europe too. A country that goes out into the world to build
relationships with old friends and new allies alike.
Russian investigators have identified Kyrgyz-born Akbarzhon Dzhalilov as
the suicide bomber who carried out Monday’s deadly attack on a crowded
subway train in St. Petersburg.
after a man called Canaan, the grandson of Noah (Genesis 10). Other
I have perused your memorial: the earnest
terms in which it is couched reveal a respectful humility on your part,
which is highly praiseworthy. In consideration of the fact that your
Ambassador and his deputy have come a long way with your memorial and
tribute, I have shown them high favour and have allowed them to be
introduced into my presence. To manifest my indulgence, I have
entertained them at a banquet and made them numerous gifts. I have also
caused presents to be forwarded to the Naval Commander and six hundred
of his officers and men, although they did not come to Peking, so that
they too may share in my all-embracing kindness.
And that is why I haveset out a clear and ambitious planfor the
negotiations ahead. It is a plan for a new deep and special partnership
between Britain and the European Union.A partnership of values. A
partnership of interests. A partnership based on co-operation in areas
such as security and economic affairs. Anda partnership that works in
the best interests of the United Kingdom, the European Union and the
The death toll from the blast has risen to 14 people, with dozens
injured in critical condition.
cite `Canaan’ as derived from the Hurrian language for `purple’ and,
As to your entreaty to send one of your
nationals to be accredited to my Celestial Court and to be in control of
your country’s trade with China, this request is contrary to all usage
of my dynasty and cannot possibly be entertained. It is true that
Europeans, in the service of the dynasty, have been permitted to live at
Peking, but they are compelled to adopt Chinese dress, they are strictly
confined to their own precincts and are never permitted to return home.
You are presumably familiar with our dynastic regulations. Your proposed
Envoy to my Court could not be placed in a position similar to that of
European officials in Peking who are forbidden to leave China, nor could
he, on the other hand, be allowed liberty of movement and the privilege
of corresponding with his own country; so that you would gain nothing by
his residence in our midst.
Because perhaps now more than ever, the world needs
theliberal,democraticvalues of Europe – values that this United
Kingdom shares. And that is why, while we are leaving the institutions
of the European Union, we are not leaving Europe.We will remain a close
friend and ally.We will be a committed partner[忠实的小伙伴]. We will
play our part to ensure that Europe is able toproject its
valuesanddefend itself from security
threats[爱护本人免受安全威迫]. And we will do all that we can to help
the European Union prosper and succeed.
Russian police released photos of the 22-year-old suspected bomber.
Greeks knew the Canaanites as `Phoenicians’ (Greek for `purple’ as the
Moreover, our Celestial dynasty possesses
vast territories, and tribute missions from the dependencies are
provided for by the Department for Tributary States, which ministers to
their wants and exercises strict control over their movements. It would
be quite impossible to leave them to their own devices. Supposing that
your Envoy should come to our Court, his language and national dress
differ from that of our people, and there would be no place in which to
bestow him. It may be suggested that he might imitate the Europeans
permanently resident in Peking and adopt the dress and customs of China,
but, it has never been our dynasty’s wish to force people to do things
unseemly and inconvenient. Besides, supposing I sent an Ambassador to
reside in your country, how could you possibly make for him the
requisite arrangements? Europe consists of many other nations besides
your own: if each and all demanded to be represented at our Court, how
could we possibly consent? The thing is utterly impracticable. How can
our dynasty alter its whole procedure and system of etiquette,
established for more than a century, in order to meet your individual
views? If it be said that your object is to exercise control over your
country’s trade, your nationals have had full liberty to trade at Canton
for many a year, and have received the greatest consideration at our
hands. Missions have been sent by Portugal and Italy, preferring similar
requests. The Throne appreciated their sincerity and loaded them with
favours, besides authorising measures to facilitate their trade with
China. You are no doubt aware that, when my Canton merchant, Wu
Chao-ping, who was in debt to foreign ships. I made the Viceroy advance
the monies due, out of the provincial treasury, and ordered him to
punish the culprit severely. Why then should foreign nations advance
this utterly unreasonable request to be represented at my Court? Peking
is nearly two thousand miles from Canton, and at such a distance what
possible control could any British representative exercise?
So Mr Speaker, in the letter that has been delivered toPresident
Tusktoday – copies of which I have placed in the library of the House
– I have been clear that the deep and special partnership we seek is
inthe best interests ofthe United Kingdom and of the European Union
As Britain begins a process of leaving the European Union, it is trying
to rekindle old trade links with Commonwealth countries. But the push
for new commerce has sparked a debate on the historical legacy of the
British Empire, with accusations that ministers are trying to whitewash
atrocities committed during the colonial times. Henry Ridgwell reports
Phoenicians worked, primarily at the city of Tyre, in purple dye and so
If you assert that your reverence for Our
Celestial dynasty fills you with a desire to acquire our civilisation,
our ceremonies and code of laws differ so completely from your own that,
even if your Envoy were able to acquire the rudiments of our
civilisation, you could not possibly transplant our manners and customs
to your alien soil. Therefore, however adept the Envoy might become,
nothing would be gained thereby.
I have been clear that we will work constructively – in a spirit of
sincereco-operation– to bring this partnership into being. And I have
been clear that we should seek to agree the terms of this future
partnership alongside those of our withdrawal, within the next 2 years.
British Chancellor Philip Hammond arrived in India for a three-day trip
to, in his government’s words, “Bang the drum for British business.” The
quest for new Commonwealth trade links has been dubbed “Empire 2.0.”
called by the Greeks `purple people’) this explanation is the most
Swaying the wide world, I have but one
aim in view, namely, to maintain a perfect governance and to fulfil the
duties of the State: strange and costly objects do not interest me. If I
have commanded that the tribute offerings sent by you, O King, are to be
accepted, this was solely in consideration for the spirit which prompted
you to dispatch them from afar. Our dynasty’s majestic virtue has
penetrated unto every country under Heaven, and Kings of all nations
have offered their costly tribute by land and sea. As your Ambassador
can see for himself, we possess all things. I set no value on objects
strange or ingenious, and have no use for your country’s manufactures.
This then is my answer to your request to appoint a representative at my
Court, a request contrary to our dynastic usage, which would only result
in inconvenience to yourself. I have expounded my wishes in detail and
have commanded your tribute Envoys to leave in peace on their homeward
journey. It behoves you, O King, to respect my sentiments and to display
even greater devotion and loyalty in future, so that, by perpetual
submission to our Throne, you may secure peace and prosperity for your
country hereafter. Besides making gifts (of which I enclose an
inventory) to each member of your Mission, I confer upon you, O King,
valuable presents in excess of the number usually bestowed on such
occasions, including silks and curios-a list of which is likewise
enclosed. Do you reverently receive them and take note of my tender
goodwill towards you! A special mandate.
I am ambitious for Britain. And the objectives I have set out for these
negotiations remain. We will deliver certainty wherever possible so that
business, the public sector and everybody else has as much clarity as we
can provide as we move through the process. It is why, tomorrow, we will
publish aWhite Paperconfirming our plans to convert the ‘acquis’
into British law, so that everyone will know where they stand.
International Trade Secretary Liam Fox, also on a trade mission in the
Philippines, wrote on Twitter recently that Britain “is one of the few
European countries that does not need to bury its 20th-century past.”
but, by no means, provable.
You, O King, from afar have yearned after
the blessings of our civilisation, and in your eagerness to come into
touch with our converting influence have sent an Embassy across the sea
bearing a memorial. I have already taken note of your respectful spirit
of submission, have treated your mission with extreme favour and loaded
it with gifts, besides issuing a mandate to you, O King, and honouring
you with the bestowal of valuable presents. Thus has my indulgence been
And it is why I have been clear that the government will put the final
deal that is agreed between the UK and the EU to a vote in bothHouses
of Parliamentbefore itcomes into force. We will take control of our
own laws and bring an end to thejurisdictionof the European Court
of Justice in Britain. Leaving the European Union will mean that our
laws will be made
inWestminster,Edinburgh,CardiffandBelfast. And those
laws will be interpreted by judges not inLuxembourg, but in courts
across this country.
Indian lawmaker and former U.N. Under-Secretary-General Shashi Tharoor
has just written a book titledInglorious Empire. He has a different
assessment of Britain’s colonial conduct: “Of which the highlights, but
only the highlights, include the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar
in India which killed defenseless, unarmed women, children and men.”
Yesterday your Ambassador petitioned my
Ministers to memorialise me regarding your trade with China, but his
proposal is not consistent with our dynastic usage and cannot be
entertained. Hitherto, all European nations, including your own
country’s barbarian merchants, have carried on their trade with our
Celestial Empire at Canton. Such has been the procedure for many years,
although our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance
and lacks no product within its own borders. There was therefore no need
to import the manufactures of outside barbarians in exchange for our own
produce. But as the tea, silk and porcelain which the Celestial Empire
produces, are absolute necessities to European nations and to
yourselves, we have permitted, as a signal mark of favour, that foreign
hongs [merchant firms] should be established at Canton, so that your
wants might be supplied and your country thus participate in our
beneficence. But your Ambassador has now put forward new requests which
completely fail to recognise the Throne’s principle to “treat strangers
from afar with indulgence,” and to exercise a pacifying control over
barbarian tribes, the world over. Moreover, our dynasty, swaying the
myriad races of the globe, extends the same benevolence towards all.
Your England is not the only nation trading at Canton. If other nations,
following your bad example, wrongfully importune my ear with further
impossible requests, how will it be possible for me to treat them with
easy indulgence? Nevertheless, I do not forget the lonely remoteness of
your island, cut off from the world by intervening wastes of sea, nor do
I overlook your excusable ignorance of the usages of our Celestial
Empire. I have consequently commanded my Ministers to enlighten your
Ambassador on the subject, and have ordered the departure of the
mission. But I have doubts that, after your Envoy’s return he may fail
to acquaint you with my view in detail or that he may be lacking in
lucidity, so that I shall now proceed . . . to issue my mandate on each
question separately. In this way you will, I trust, comprehend my
Despite that history, Tharoor says India is listening carefully to what
Britain has to offer.
(3) Your request for a small island near
Chusan, where your merchants may reside and goods be warehoused, arises
from your desire to develop trade. As there are neither foreign hongs
nor interpreters in or near Chusan, where none of your ships have ever
called, such an island would be utterly useless for your purposes. Every
inch of the territory of our Empire is marked on the map and the
strictest vigilance is exercised over it all: even tiny islets and
farlying sandbanks are clearly defined as part of the provinces to
which they belong. Consider, moreover, that England is not the only
barbarian land which wishes to establish . . . trade with our Empire:
supposing that other nations were all to imitate your evil example and
beseech me to present them each and all with a site for trading
purposes, how could I possibly comply? This also is a flagrant
infringement of the usage of my Empire and cannot possibly be
the authority of a court or official organization to make decisions and
Cutting migration was a central pledge of Britain’s campaign to leave
the European Union, but countries like India want visa restrictions
relaxed as part of any trade deal.
Attica is a triangular peninsula juttinginto the Aegean Sea. It is
naturally divided to the north from Boeotia by the10 mi (16 km) long
Cithaeron mountain range. To the west, it is bordered by thesea and the
canal of Corinth. The Saronic Gulf lies to the south, and theisland of
Euboea lies off the north and the eastern coasts. Mountains separatethe
peninsula into the plains of Pedias, Mesogaia, and Thriasion. The
mountainsof Attica are the Hymettus, the eastern portion of the
Geraneia, the Parnitha(the highest mountain of Attica), the Aigaleo and
the Penteli. Fourmountains—Aigaleo, Parnitha, Penteli and Hymettus
(clockwise from thesouthwest)—delineate the hilly plain on which the
Athens-Piraeus metroplex nowspreads. The plain of Mesogaía, now called
Mesógeia, lies to the east of MountHymettus and is bound to the north by
the foothills of Mount Penteli, to theeast by the Euboean Gulf and Mount
Myrrhinous (modern Merenta), and to thesouth by the mountains of Laurium
(modern Lavrio). Athens’ water reservoir,Lake Marathon, is an artificial
lake created by damming in 1920. Pine and firforests cover the area
around Parnitha. Hymettus, Penteli, Myrrhinous andLaurium are forested
with pine trees, whereas the rest are covered byshrubbery.
(4) The next request, for a small site in
the vicinity of Canton city, where your barbarian merchants may lodge
or, alternatively, that there be no longer any restrictions over their
movements at Aomen, has arisen from the following causes. Hitherto, the
barbarian merchants of Europe have had a definite locality assigned to
them at Aomen for residence and trade, and have been forbidden to
encroach an inch beyond the limits assigned to that locality…. If
these restrictions were withdrawn, friction would inevitably occur
between the Chinese and your barbarian subjects, and the results would
militate against the benevolent regard that I feel towards you. From
every point of view, therefore, it is best that the regulations now in
force should continue unchanged….
The court has no jurisdiction in/over cases of this kind.
Henry Ridgwell, for VOA news, London.
The Kifisos is the longest river of Attica.
(7) Regarding your nation’s worship of
the Lord of Heaven, it is the same religion as that of other European
nations. Ever since the beginning of history, sage Emperors and wise
rulers have bestowed on China a moral system and inculcated a code,
which from time immemorial has been religiously observed by the myriads
of my subjects. There has been no hankering after heterodox doctrines.
Even the European (missionary) officials in my capital are forbidden to
hold intercourse with Chinese subjects; they are restricted within the
limits of their appointed residences, and may not go about propagating
their religion. The distinction between Chinese and barbarian is most
strict, and your Ambassador’s request that barbarians shall be given
full liberty to disseminate their religion is utterly
In southern Colombia, burials have begun for the 273 people killed in
Saturday’s devastating mudslides.
According to Plato, Attica’s ancient
It may be, O King, that the above
proposals have been wantonly made by your Ambassador on his own
responsibility, or peradventure you yourself are ignorant of our
dynastic regulations and had no intention of transgressing them when you
expressed these wild ideas and hopes…. If, after the receipt of this
explicit decree, you lightly give ear to the representations of your
subordinates and allow your barbarian merchants to proceed to Chêkiang
and Tientsin, with the object of landing and trading there, the
ordinances of my Celestial Empire are strict in the extreme, and the
local officials, both civil and military, are bound reverently to obey
the law of the land. Should your vessels touch the shore, your merchants
will assuredly never be permitted to land or to reside there, but will
be subject to instant expulsion. In that event your barbarian merchants
will have had a long journey for nothing. Do not say that you were not
warned in due time! Tremblingly obey and show no negligence! A special
We will strengthen the Union of the 4 nations thatcompriseour United
Kingdom. We will negotiate as one United Kingdom, taking account of the
specific interests of every nation and region of the UK and when it
comes to the powers that we will take back from Europe, we will consult
fully on which powers shouldreside inWestminster and which should be
passed on tothe devolved administrations.
Health authorities in the town of Mocoa have been releasing the remains
to families in order to speed burials and prevent the spread of disease.
Meanwhile, rescue workers and residents continued a frantic search in
the rubble for the 200 people who remain missing.
boundaries were fixed by the Isthmus, and, toward the continent, they
From Backhouse, E. and J. O. P. Bland, Annals
and Memoirs of the Court of Peking. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1914. pp.
But Mr Speaker, no decisions currently taken by the devolved
administrations will be removed from them. And it is the expectation of
the government that the devolved administrations
inScotland,WalesandNorthern Irelandwill see a significant
increase in theirdecision-making poweras a result of this process.
Authorities in southern Somalia are searching for five World Health
Organization workers who were abducted by suspected al-Shabaab
as far as the heights of Cithaeron and Parnes. The boundary line came
We want to maintain the common travel area withthe Republic of
Ireland. There should be no return to the borders of the past. We will
control immigration so that we continue to attract the brightest and the
best to work or study in Britain, but manage the process properly so
that our immigration system serves the national interest.
Colonel Deeq Abdi Khaliif says the workers were in their homes Sunday
when gunmen broke in, took them by force and drove them to a remote
toward the sea, bounded by the district of Oropus on the right and by
www.4858.com，We seek to guarantee the rights ofEU citizens[欧盟公民]who are
already living in Britain, and the rights ofBritish
nationals[意大利人民]in other member states as early as we can. That is
set out very clearly in the letter as an early priority for the talks
ahead. We will ensure that workers’ rights are fully protected and
maintained.Indeed, under my leadership,not only will the government
protect the rights of workers, we will build on them.
The five men – all Somali nationals – were working on a polio
vaccination program for the WHO.
Asopus on the left.
We will pursue aboldandambitiousfree trade agreement with the
European Union that allows for the freest possible trade in goods and
services between Britain and the EU’s member states; that gives British
companiesthe maximum freedomto trade with and operate within European
markets; and that lets European businesses do the same in Britain.
The UNHCR has not made any comment on the abduction.
Because European leaders have said many times that we cannot ‘cherry
pick’ and remain members of the single market without accepting
the 4 freedoms that are indivisible. We respect that position. And as
accepting those freedomsis incompatible with[和…不相容的]the
democratically expressed will of the British people, we will no longer
be members of the single market.
I’m Jee Abbey Lee in Washington.
cherry pick:to pick only the best people or things from a
group, so that only people or things that are less good remain
That’s the latest world news from VOA.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asiaor Southwest Asia is the
westernmost subregion of Asia. The concept is inlimited use, as it
significantly overlaps with the Middle East (or Near East),the main
difference being the exclusion of Egypt (which would be counted aspart
of North Africa). The term is sometimes used for the purposes of
groupingcountries in statistics.
The new schools were accused ofcherry-pickingthe best students in
The total population of Western Asia is anestimated 300 million as of
We are going to make sure that we can*strike**trade
agreementswith countries from outside the European Union too. Because
important though our trade with the EU is and will remain, it is clear
that the UK needs to increase significantly its trade with the fastest
growing export markets in the world.*
In an unrelated context, the term is alsoused in ancient history and
archaeology to divide the Fertile Crescent into the”Asiatic” or “Western
Asian” cultures as opposed to ancientEgypt.
strike:to reach or make an agreement 达成，制定（协议）
As a geographic concept, “WesternAsia” includes the Levant, Mesopotamia,
the Arabian peninsula, Anatolia,Iran, Armenian Highlands and South
Caucasus. The Sinai Peninsula belongs toWestern Asia, making Egypt a
Do you think the government should try tostrike a dealwith the
Although, the term “Western Asia”is mostly used as a convenient division
of contemporary sovereign states into amanageable number of world
regions for statistical purposes; it is sometimesused instead of the
more geopolitical term “Middle East”, for exampleby the United Nations
Statistics Division (UNSD) statistics office or Canada’sgovernment.
The term is used pragmatically and has no
We hope to continue to collaborate with our European partners in the
areas ofscience, education, research and technology, so that the UK is
one of the best places for science and innovation. We seek continued
co-operation with our European partners in important areas such
ascrime, terrorism and foreign affairs.
“correct” or generally agreed-upon definition. The government of
And it is our aim to deliver asmoothandorderlyBrexit – reaching an
agreement about our future partnership by the time the 2-year Article 50
process has concluded, then moving intoa phased
process[阶段性进度/进程]of implementation in which Britain, the EU
institutions and member states prepare for the new arrangements that
will exist between us.
Canada and also, for example, the National Geographic Style Manual only
Mr Speaker, we understand that there will beconsequencesfor the UK of
leaving the EU. We know that we will lose influenceover the rules that
affect the European economy. We know that UK companies that trade with
the EU will have toalign with[与……结盟;与…一致]rules agreed by
institutions of which we are no longer a part, just as we do in other
overseas markets. We accept that.
includes the nations of Turkey, Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia,
However, we approach these talksconstructively,respectfully, andin
a spirit of sincere co-operation. For it is in the interests of both
the United Kingdom and the European Union that we should use this
process to deliver our objectives in a fair and orderly manner. It is in
the interests of both the United Kingdom and the European Union that
there should beas little disruption as possible. And it is in the
interests of both the United Kingdom and the European Union that Europe
should remain strong, prosperous and capable of*projecting**its
values*in the world.
Syria, Qatar, Kuwait, Jordan, Iraq, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Cyprus, Oman, and
At a time when the growth of global trade is slowing and there are signs
thatprotectionistinstinctsare on the rise in many parts of the world,
Europe has a responsibility to stand up for free trade in the interests
of all our citizens.
as part of West Asia, excluding Israel and West Bank/Gaza. As a
With Europe’s security morefragiletoday than at any time since the end
ofthe Cold War, weakening our co-operation and failing to stand up for
European values would be a costly mistake.
example, Maddison, The World Economy: Historical Statistics (2003)
Our vote to leave the EU wasno rejection ofthe values thatwe share as
fellow Europeans. As a European country, we will continue to play our
part in promoting and supporting those values – during the negotiations
and once they are done.
Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi
We will continue to bereliablepartners, willing allies and close
friends. We want to continue to buy goods and services from the EU, and
sell them ours. We want to trade with them as freely as possible, and
work with one another to make sure we are allsafer, moresecureand
moreprosperousthrough continued friendship.
Arabia, Syria, Turkey, UAE, Yemen, and West Bank/Gaza. The United
Indeed, in an increasingly unstable world, we must continue toforge the
closest possible security co-operationto keep our people safe. We face
the same global threats fromterrorismandextremism[极端主义]. That
message was only reinforced by theabhorrentattack onWestminster
Bridge[威斯敏斯特桥]and this place last week.
Industrial Organization includes Azerbaijan, Iran, Armenia, Oman, Yemen,
Lebanon, Syria, Israel, Iraq, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain,
morally very bad 令人忌恨的；使人讨厌的；可恶的
Saudi Arabia, and Jordan when listing the nations of the West Asia
an abhorrent crime
leaves Turkey and Georgia out. The UNSD leaves out Iran but
other commonly West Asian listed nations.
So there should be no reason why we should not agree a new deep and
special partnership between the UK and the EU that works for us all.
Mr Speaker, I know that this is a day of celebration for someand
disappointment for others. Thereferendum[公投]last June was divisive
at times. Not everyone shared the same point of view, or voted in the
same way. The arguments on both side werepassionate.
But, Mr Speaker, when I sit around the negotiating table in the months
ahead, I will represent every person in the whole United Kingdom – young
and old, rich and poor, city, town, country and all the villages
Widely considered to be one of the cradlesof civilization by the Western
world, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer andthe Akkadian,
Babylonian, and Assyrian empires, all native to the territory
ofmodern-day Iraq. In the Iron Age, it was controlled by the
Neo-Assyrian andNeo-Babylonian Empires.
And yes, thoseEU nationalswho have made this country their home and it
is myfierce determinationto get the right deal for every single person
in this country. For as we face the opportunities ahead of us on
thismomentous[重大的,重要的]journey, our shared values, interests
and ambitions can – and must – bring us together.
The Sumerians and Akkadians (includingAssyrians and Babylonians)
dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of writtenhistory (c. 3100 BC)
to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered bythe Achaemenid
Empire. It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC, and after hisdeath, it
became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire.
We all want to see a Britain that isstrongerthan it is today. We all
want a country that is fairer so that everyone has the chance to
succeed. We all want a nation that is safe and secure for our children
and grandchildren. We all want to live ina truly Global Britainthat
gets out and builds relationships with old friends and new allies around
Around 150 BC, Mesopotamia was under thecontrol of the Parthian Empire.
Mesopotamia became a battleground between theRomans and Parthians, with
western parts of Mesopotamia coming under ephemeralRoman control. In AD
226, eastern part of it fell to the Sassanid Persians.Division of
Mesopotamia between Roman (Byzantine from AD 395) and SassanidEmpires
lasted until the 7th century Muslim conquest of Persia of the
SasanianEmpire and Muslim conquest of the Levant from Byzantines. A
number of primarilyneo-Assyrian and Christian native Mesopotamian states
existed between the 1stcentury BC and 3rd century AD, including
Adiabene, Osroene, and Hatra.
These are the ambitions of thisgovernment’s Plan for Britain. Ambitions
that unite us, so that we are no longer defined by the vote we cast, but
by our determination to make a success of the result.
Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest
We are one great union of people and nations with a proud history and a
bright future. And now that the decision to leave has been made – and
the process is underway – it is time to come together. For this great
national moment needs a great national effort. An effort to shape a
stronger future for Britain.
developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000
So let us do so together. Let us come together and work together. Let us
together choose to believe in Britain with optimism and hope. For if we
do, we can make the most of the opportunities ahead. We can together
make a success of this moment. And we can together build
astronger,fairer,betterBritain – a Britain our children and
grandchildren are proud to call home.
needed] It has been identified as having “inspired some of the most
important developments in human history including the invention of the
the planting of the first cereal crops and the development of cursive
mathematics, astronomy and agriculture.
The Hittites (/ˈhɪtaɪts/) were an AncientAnatolian people who
established an empire centered on Hattusa in north-centralAnatolia
around 1600 BC. This empire reached its height during the
mid-14thcentury BC under Suppiluliuma I, when it encompassed an area
that included mostof Anatolia as well as parts of the northern Levant
and Upper Mesopotamia.Between the 15th and 13th centuries BC the Hittite
Empire came into conflictwith the Egyptian Empire, Middle Assyrian
Empire and the empire of the Mitannifor control of the Near East. The
Assyrians eventually emerged as the dominantpower and annexed much of
the Hittite empire, while the remainder was sacked byPhrygian newcomers
to the region. After c. 1180 BC, during the Bronze Agecollapse, the
Hittites splintered into several independent”Neo-Hittite” city-states,
some of which survived until the 8thcentury BC before succumbing to the
The Hittite language was a distinct memberof the Anatolian branch of the
Indo-European language family, and along withthe related Luwian
language, is the oldest historically attested
Indo-Europeanlanguage. They referred to their native land as Hatti.
The conventional name”Hittites” is due to their initial identification
with the BiblicalHittites in 19th century archaeology. Despite their use
of the name Hatti fortheir core territory, the Hittites should be
distinguished from the Hattians,an earlier people who inhabited the same
region (until the beginning of the 2ndmillennium BC) and spoke an
unrelated language known as Hattic which wasprobably a language isolate
but may have been a Northwest Caucasianlanguage.
During the 1920s, interest in the Hittitesincreased with the founding of
the modern Republic of Turkey and attracted theattention of
archaeologists such as Halet Çambel and Tahsin Özgüç, leading tothe
decipherment of Hittite hieroglyphs. During this period, the new field
ofHittitology also influenced the naming of institutions, such as the
state-ownedEtibank (“Hittite bank”), and the foundation of the
Museum ofAnatolian Civilizations in Ankara, located 200 kilometers west
of the Hittitecapital and housing the most comprehensive exhibition of
Hittite artifacts inthe world.
The history of the Hittite civilization is
known mostly from cuneiform texts found in the area of their kingdom,
diplomatic and commercial correspondence found in various archives in
Babylonia, Egypt and the Middle East, the decipherment of which was also
event in the history of Indo-European linguistics. The Hittite military
successful use of chariots, and although belonging to the Bronze
Hittites were the forerunners of the Iron Age, developing the
iron artifacts from as early as the 18th century BC; at this time, gifts
the “man of Burushanda” of an iron throne and an iron sceptre to the
Kaneshite king Anitta were recorded in the Anitta text inscription.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speakingstate and cultural area based
in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-dayIraq). A small Amorite-ruled
state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained at thistime the minor city of
Babylon. Babylon greatly expanded during the reign ofHammurabi in
the first half of the 18th century BC, becoming a major capitalcity.
During the reign of Hammurabi and afterwards, Babylonia was called
MātAkkadī “the country of Akkad” in the Akkadian language. It
wasoften involved in rivalry with its older fellow Akkadian-speaking
state ofAssyria in northern Mesopotamia. Babylonia briefly became the
major power inthe region after Hammurabi (fl. c. 1792 – 1752 BC middle
chronology, or c. 1696– 1654 BC, short chronology) created a short-lived
empire, succeeding theearlier Akkadian Empire, Third Dynasty of Ur, and
Old Assyrian Empire; however,the Babylonian empire rapidly fell apart
after the death of Hammurabi.
The Babylonian state, like Assyria to thenorth, retained the written
Akkadian language for official use (the language ofits native populace),
despite its Northwest Semitic-speaking Amorite foundersand Kassite
successors, who spoke a language isolate. It retained the
Sumerianlanguage for religious use (as did Assyria), but by the time
Babylon wasfounded, this was no longer a spoken language, having been
wholly subsumed byAkkadian. The earlier Akkadian and Sumerian traditions
played a major role inBabylonian and Assyrian culture, and the region
would remain an importantcultural center, even under protracted periods
of outside rule.
The earliest mention of the city of Babylon
can be found in a clay tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad
dating back to the 23rd century BC. Babylon was merely a religious and
centre at this point and neither an independent state nor a large city;
the rest of Mesopotamia, it was subject to the Akkadian Empire which
the Akkadian and Sumerian speakers under one rule. After the collapse of
empire, the south Mesopotamian region was dominated by the Gutian people
few decades before the rise of the Third Dynasty of Ur, which, apart
northern Assyria, encompassed the whole of Mesopotamia, including the
Asiatic refers to something related toAsia.
Asiatic may also refer to:
Asiatic style, a term in ancient stylisticcriticism associated with
Greek writers of Asia Minor
In the context of Ancient Egypt, Asiatic is
used to mean beyond the borders of Egypt and the continent of Africa to
east, but only of western Asia, or of what may now be considered the
is a city located on a plateau in theJudaean Mountains between the
Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. One of the oldestcities in the world,
Jerusalem was named as “Urusalima” on ancientMesopotamian cuneiform
tablets, probably meaning “City of Shalem”after a Canaanite deity,
during the early Canaanite period (approximately 2400BCE). During the
Israelite period, significant construction activity inJerusalem began in
the 9th century BCE (Iron Age II), and in the 8th centurythe city
developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdomof
Judah. It is considered a holy city in the three major
Abrahamicreligions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
Israelis and Palestinians both claimJerusalem as their capital, as the
State of Israel maintains its primarygovernmental institutions there
while the State of Palestine ultimatelyforesees the city as its seat of
power; however, neither claim is widelyrecognized internationally.
During its long history, Jerusalem has been
destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and
and recaptured 44 times. The part of Jerusalem called the City of
settled in the 4th millennium BCE. In 1538, walls were built around
Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the
City, which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known
early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim
The Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, and is on the List of
Heritage in Danger. Modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old
Battle of Megiddo
This Battle of Megiddo is recorded ashaving taken place in 609 BC when
Pharaoh Necho II of Egypt lead his army toCarchemish (northern Syria) to
join with his allies, the fading Neo-AssyrianEmpire, against the surging
Neo-Babylonian Empire. This required passingthrough territory controlled
by the Kingdom of Judah. Judaean King Josiahrefused to let the Egyptians
pass, perhaps thinking that the Assyrians andEgyptians were weakened by
the death of the pharaoh Psamtik I only a yearearlier (610 BCE) and also
attempting to help the Babylonians. The Judaeanforces battled the
Egyptians at Megiddo, resulting in Josiah’s death and hisKingdom
becoming a vassal state of Egypt. The battle is recorded in the
Bible,the Greek 1 Esdras, and the writings of Josephus.
While Necho II gained control of the
Kingdom of Judah, the combined Assyrian-Egyptian forces failed to defeat
Babylonians, after which Assyria largely ceased to exist as an
The Euphrates (Listeni/juːˈfreɪtiːz/;
Sumerian:𒌓𒄒𒉣: Buranuna, Akkadian:𒌓𒄒𒉣: Purattu, Arabic:الفرات:
al-Furāt, Syriac: ̇ܦܪܬ: Pǝrāt, Armenian:Եփրատ: Yeprat, Hebrew:פרת:
Perat, Turkish: Fırat, Kurdish: Firat) is the longest and one
of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Together with
Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia. Originating
eastern Turkey, the Euphrates flows through Syria and Iraq to join the
in the Shatt al-Arab, which empties into the Persian Gulf
odern lists of pharaohs are based onhistorical records: Ancient Egyptian
king lists and later histories, such asManetho’s Aegyptiaca, as well as
archaeological evidence. Concerning ancientsources, Egyptologists and
Historians alike call for caution about thecredibility, exactitude and
completeness of these sources, many of which werewritten long after the
reigns they report. An additional problem is that ancientking lists
are often damaged, inconsistent with one another and/or selective.
The following ancient king lists are known(given here by
Den seal impressions (1st dynasty); foundon a cylinder seal in Den’s
tomb. It lists all 1st dynasty kings from Narmer toDen by their Horus
Palermo stone (5th dynasty); carved on anolivin-basalt slab. Broken into
pieces and thus today incomplete.
Giza King List (6th dynasty); painted withred, green and black ink on
gypsum and cedar wood. Very selective.
South Saqqara Stone (6th dynasty); carvedon a black basalt slab. Very
Karnak King List (18th dynasty); carved onlimestone. Very selective.
Abydos King List of Seti I (19th dynasty);carved on limestone. Very
detailed, but omitting the First Intermediate Period.
Abydos King List of Ramses II (19thdynasty); carved on limestone. Very
Saqqara King List (19th dynasty), carved onlimestone. Very detailed, but
omitting most kings of the 1st dynasty forunknown reasons.
Turin King List (19th dynasty); writtenwith red and black ink on
papyrus. Most possibly the most complete king list inhistory, today
Manetho’s Aegyptiaca (Greek Period);
possibly written on papyrus. The original writings are lost today and
anecdotes assigned to certain kings seem fictitious.
he Amorites (/ˈæməˌraɪts/; Sumerian𒈥𒌅MAR.TU; Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm;
Egyptian Amar; HebrewאמוריʼĔmōrī; Ancient Greek: Ἀμορραῖοι) were an
people from Syria who also occupied large parts of southern
the 21st century BC to the end of the 17th century BC, where they
several prominent city states in existing locations, notably Babylon
raised from a small administrative town to an independent state and
The term Amurru in Akkadian and Sumerian texts refers to them, as well
their principal deity.